Reversal of Hyperglycemia and Suppression of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse with Apoptotic DNA Immunotherapy™ (ADi™), ADi-100

David G. Alleva, Melika Rezaee, Linda Yip, Gang Ren, Jarrett Rosenberg, Waldo Concepcion, Alan Escher, Shahrokh Shabahang, and Avnesh S. Thakor (2020)


The antigen-specific apoptotic DNA immunotherapeutic, ADi-100, is designed to suppress type 1 diabetes and consists of two DNA plasmids encoding genetic sequences of the apoptosis-inducing molecule, BAX, and the secreted form of the autoantigen, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, that is CpG hyper-methylated to avoid inflammatory signaling (msGAD55). Upon a four-day treatment with ADi-100 of young female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the frequency of various tolerogenic dendritic cell populations increased in draining lymph nodes; these cells lost the capacity to stimulate glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes and were associated with the previously demonstrated enhancement of GAD-specific regulatory T cells. The efficacy of two ADi-100 formulations containing different proportions of BAX and msGAD55, 1:4 (10/40 µg) and 1:2 (17/33 µg), was evaluated in mildly hyperglycemic pre-diabetic NOD female mice. Both formulations suppressed the incidence of diabetes by 80% in an antigen-specific manner, while all untreated mice developed diabetes. However, treatment of pre-diabetic mice with significantly higher hyperglycemia, denoting progressive disease, showed that ADi-100 1:2 strongly suppressed diabetes incidence by 80% whereas the ADi-100 1:4 was less effective (50%). As an antigen-specific monotherapy, ADi-100 is highly efficacious in reversing elevated hyperglycemia to prevent diabetes, in which increasing apoptosis-inducing BAX content is a promising immune tolerance feature.

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